NumPy docstrings#
This page demonstrates NumPy docstrings for the theme, as well as some other common Sphinx directives for API documentation.
New in version 0.1.1.
NumPy#
- Provides
An array object of arbitrary homogeneous items
Fast mathematical operations over arrays
Linear Algebra, Fourier Transforms, Random Number Generation
How to use the documentation#
Documentation is available in two forms: docstrings provided with the code, and a loose standing reference guide, available from the NumPy homepage.
We recommend exploring the docstrings using IPython, an advanced Python shell with TAB-completion and introspection capabilities. See below for further instructions.
The docstring examples assume that numpy has been imported as np
:
>>> import numpy as np
Code snippets are indicated by three greater-than signs:
>>> x = 42
>>> x = x + 1
Use the built-in help
function to view a function’s docstring:
>>> help(np.sort)
...
For some objects, np.info(obj)
may provide additional help. This is
particularly true if you see the line “Help on ufunc object:” at the top
of the help() page. Ufuncs are implemented in C, not Python, for speed.
The native Python help() does not know how to view their help, but our
np.info() function does.
To search for documents containing a keyword, do:
>>> np.lookfor('keyword')
...
General-purpose documents like a glossary and help on the basic concepts
of numpy are available under the doc
sub-module:
>>> from numpy import doc
>>> help(doc)
...
Available subpackages#
- lib
Basic functions used by several sub-packages.
- random
Core Random Tools
- linalg
Core Linear Algebra Tools
- fft
Core FFT routines
- polynomial
Polynomial tools
- testing
NumPy testing tools
- distutils
Enhancements to distutils with support for Fortran compilers support and more (for Python <= 3.11).
Utilities#
- test
Run numpy unittests
- show_config
Show numpy build configuration
- matlib
Make everything matrices.
- __version__
NumPy version string
Viewing documentation using IPython#
Start IPython and import numpy usually under the alias np
: import
numpy as np. Then, directly past or use the %cpaste
magic to paste
examples into the shell. To see which functions are available in numpy,
type np.<TAB>
(where <TAB>
refers to the TAB key), or use
np.*cos*?<ENTER>
(where <ENTER>
refers to the ENTER key) to narrow
down the list. To view the docstring for a function, use
np.cos?<ENTER>
(to view the docstring) and np.cos??<ENTER>
(to view
the source code).
Copies vs. in-place operation#
Most of the functions in numpy return a copy of the array argument
(e.g., np.sort). In-place versions of these functions are often
available as array methods, i.e. x = np.array([1,2,3]); x.sort()
.
Exceptions to this rule are documented.
- numpy.array(object, dtype=None, *, copy=True, order='K', subok=False, ndmin=0, like=None)#
Create an array.
- Parameters:
- objectarray_like
An array, any object exposing the array interface, an object whose
__array__
method returns an array, or any (nested) sequence. If object is a scalar, a 0-dimensional array containing object is returned.- dtypedata-type, optional
The desired data-type for the array. If not given, NumPy will try to use a default
dtype
that can represent the values (by applying promotion rules when necessary.)- copybool, optional
If true (default), then the object is copied. Otherwise, a copy will only be made if
__array__
returns a copy, if obj is a nested sequence, or if a copy is needed to satisfy any of the other requirements (dtype
,order
, etc.).- order{‘K’, ‘A’, ‘C’, ‘F’}, optional
Specify the memory layout of the array. If object is not an array, the newly created array will be in C order (row major) unless ‘F’ is specified, in which case it will be in Fortran order (column major). If object is an array the following holds.
order
no copy
copy=True
‘K’
unchanged
F & C order preserved, otherwise most similar order
‘A’
unchanged
F order if input is F and not C, otherwise C order
‘C’
C order
C order
‘F’
F order
F order
When
copy=False
and a copy is made for other reasons, the result is the same as ifcopy=True
, with some exceptions for ‘A’, see the Notes section. The default order is ‘K’.- subokbool, optional
If True, then sub-classes will be passed-through, otherwise the returned array will be forced to be a base-class array (default).
- ndminint, optional
Specifies the minimum number of dimensions that the resulting array should have. Ones will be prepended to the shape as needed to meet this requirement.
- likearray_like, optional
Reference object to allow the creation of arrays which are not NumPy arrays. If an array-like passed in as
like
supports the__array_function__
protocol, the result will be defined by it. In this case, it ensures the creation of an array object compatible with that passed in via this argument.New in version 1.20.0.
- Returns:
- outndarray
An array object satisfying the specified requirements.
See also
empty_like
Return an empty array with shape and type of input.
ones_like
Return an array of ones with shape and type of input.
zeros_like
Return an array of zeros with shape and type of input.
full_like
Return a new array with shape of input filled with value.
empty
Return a new uninitialized array.
ones
Return a new array setting values to one.
zeros
Return a new array setting values to zero.
full
Return a new array of given shape filled with value.
Notes
When order is ‘A’ and
object
is an array in neither ‘C’ nor ‘F’ order, and a copy is forced by a change in dtype, then the order of the result is not necessarily ‘C’ as expected. This is likely a bug.Examples
>>> np.array([1, 2, 3]) array([1, 2, 3])
Upcasting:
>>> np.array([1, 2, 3.0]) array([ 1., 2., 3.])
More than one dimension:
>>> np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]]) array([[1, 2], [3, 4]])
Minimum dimensions 2:
>>> np.array([1, 2, 3], ndmin=2) array([[1, 2, 3]])
Type provided:
>>> np.array([1, 2, 3], dtype=complex) array([ 1.+0.j, 2.+0.j, 3.+0.j])
Data-type consisting of more than one element:
>>> x = np.array([(1,2),(3,4)],dtype=[('a','<i4'),('b','<i4')]) >>> x['a'] array([1, 3])
Creating an array from sub-classes:
>>> np.array(np.mat('1 2; 3 4')) array([[1, 2], [3, 4]])
>>> np.array(np.mat('1 2; 3 4'), subok=True) matrix([[1, 2], [3, 4]])
- numpy.transpose(a, axes=None)#
Returns an array with axes transposed.
For a 1-D array, this returns an unchanged view of the original array, as a transposed vector is simply the same vector. To convert a 1-D array into a 2-D column vector, an additional dimension must be added, e.g.,
np.atleast2d(a).T
achieves this, as doesa[:, np.newaxis]
. For a 2-D array, this is the standard matrix transpose. For an n-D array, if axes are given, their order indicates how the axes are permuted (see Examples). If axes are not provided, thentranspose(a).shape == a.shape[::-1]
.- Parameters:
- aarray_like
Input array.
- axestuple or list of ints, optional
If specified, it must be a tuple or list which contains a permutation of [0,1,…,N-1] where N is the number of axes of a. The i’th axis of the returned array will correspond to the axis numbered
axes[i]
of the input. If not specified, defaults torange(a.ndim)[::-1]
, which reverses the order of the axes.
- Returns:
- pndarray
a with its axes permuted. A view is returned whenever possible.
See also
ndarray.transpose
Equivalent method.
moveaxis
Move axes of an array to new positions.
argsort
Return the indices that would sort an array.
Notes
Use
transpose(a, argsort(axes))
to invert the transposition of tensors when using the axes keyword argument.Examples
>>> a = np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]]) >>> a array([[1, 2], [3, 4]]) >>> np.transpose(a) array([[1, 3], [2, 4]])
>>> a = np.array([1, 2, 3, 4]) >>> a array([1, 2, 3, 4]) >>> np.transpose(a) array([1, 2, 3, 4])
>>> a = np.ones((1, 2, 3)) >>> np.transpose(a, (1, 0, 2)).shape (2, 1, 3)
>>> a = np.ones((2, 3, 4, 5)) >>> np.transpose(a).shape (5, 4, 3, 2)